CANNABINOIDS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMANS
What Is Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids are derived from cannabis or hemp plant and has compounds that can cause both psychological and physiological effect on humans. While cannabinoids containing CBD have medical benefits and help to reduce stress, cannabinoids containing THC or tetrahydrocannabinol can induce hallucinations and anxiety.
Smoking or vaping cannabinoids with THC is the same as smoking marijuana as it has similar euphoric effects. Cultivation of cannabis or hemp plant is allowed in most parts of the world today as it has multiple applications in industries like textiles, food processing, automobile, paper and others.
Though there are more than 80 different strains of cannabinoids that are found in cannabis plant, the most prevalent are CBD and THC which have completely diverse qualities as the former has medicinal benefits while latter has psychoactive properties.
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General effect of cannabinoids
According to recent research about cannabinoids, these have a special effect on the human body on a specific section of central nervous system called endocannabinoid system. This research was carried out by Professor Rephael Mechoulam of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It opened a new study related to biochemistry in which brain’s reaction to consumption of different strains of cannabis is being investigated. This research showed that cannabinoids act as modulators of brain’s neurotransmitters and cause physiological effect on learning, appetite and sensory nerves.
These cannabinoid receptors are more than normal receptors of the body and are present throughout the body and when they are stimulated it leads to several physiological processes. These receptors have been categorized into two sections called as CB1 and CB2 among which the first one is found in both the brain and peripheral tissue while the second receptor is manifested into cells and vital organs. The largest concentration of CB2 receptor is found in the spleen followed by immune system and cardiovascular system.
Antioxidant Effect of Cannabinoids
Both CBD and THC cannabinoids have fragrant terpenoids that can work with cannabinoids to provide unique taste and flavor to vaping liquids used in e-cigarettes. The neuroprotective antioxidants in both THC and CBD prevent oxidative damage and are more protective than Vitamin E or Vitamin C. The receptors for cannabinoid are largest family of receptors in the human body and are referred to as G protein-coupled receptor. The cannabinoids that are nonpsychotropic can be used for their anti inflammatory properties as and can help in modulation of pain in the body.
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Proven Benefits of Pure CBD
Relieves Pain and Inflammation: A 2012 study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that CBD significantly suppressed chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodents without causing analgesic tolerance. Researchers suggest that CBD and other nonpsychoactive components of marijuana may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain.
Has Antipsychotic Effects: Research shows that CBD benefits include producing antipsychotic effects. It appears to have a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs as seen using behavioral and neurochemical techniques in animal studies. Additionally, studies show that CBD prevents human experimental psychosis and is effective in open case reports and clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia, with a remarkable safety profile
Reduces Anxiety: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Cannabidiol has shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder and researchers suggest that it may also be effective for panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder – cbd oil for anxiety.
Helps to Fight Cancer : Several scientific reports demonstrate that CBD benefits include possessing antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic effects that inhibit cancer cell migration, adhesion and invasion. A 2006 study published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics found for the first time that CBD potently and selectively inhibited the growth of different breast tumor cell lines and exhibited significantly less potency in non-cancer cells.
Relieves Nausea: Cannabis has been used for centuries for the suppression of nausea and vomiting. Research has revealed that among more than 80 cannabinoid compounds found in marijuana, both the intoxicant THC and the non-intoxicant CBD Oil Ingredients helps to get rid of nausea and vomiting. A 2012 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology found that CBD benefits including possessing anti-nausea and antiemetic effects when it was administered to rats.
May Treat Seizures and Other Neurological Disorders: A 2014 survey conducted by researchers at Stanford University was presented to parents belonging to a Facebook group dedicated to sharing information about the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis to treat their child’s seizures. Other beneficial effects included increased alertness, better mood and improved sleep; while side effects included drowsiness and fatigue.
Lowers Incidence of Diabetes: A 2006 study found that CBD treatment significantly reduced the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice from an incidence of 86 percent in non-treated mice to an incidence of 30 percent in CBD-treated mice.
Also in 2013, the American Journal of Medicine published a study that highlighted the impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin and insulin resistance among U.S. adults. The researchers found that current marijuana use was associated with 16 percent lower fasting insulin levels. They also found significant associations between marijuana use and smaller waist circumferences, a factor connected to the onset of diabetes symptoms.
Promotes Cardiovascular Health: A 2013 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology reports that CBD protects against the vascular damage caused by a high glucose environment, inflammation or the induction of type 2 diabetes in animal models; plus, CBD proved to reduce the vascular hyperpermeability (which causes leaky gut) associated with such environments.
Toxicity of cannabinoids
Acute toxicity studies show that it is virtually impossible to die from acute administration of marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis.THC affects the central nervous system and can result in mood alterations and cognition problems.
It can heighten a person’s senses and can help in curing of insomnia, pain, depression, nausea and appetite. But THC has rarely been able to cause fatal overdose like other drugs and has low toxicity but smoking cannabis or marijuana can led to similar tar formation in lungs like tobacco smoke in cigars and cannabis smoke has fifty carcinogens.
Psychoactive Effect of Cannabinoids
Psychoactive cannabinoids produce euphoria, enhancement of sensory perception. THC or tetrahydrocannabinol affects the brain by binding itself to cannabinoid receptors which affects the neurotransmitters in the brain like dopamine and norepinephrine that lead to feelings of euphoria and anxiety.
CBD on the other hand has a milder effect and causes general change in conscious perception by causing a feeling of relaxation and stress reduction. Nearly 20-30 percent of people that use THC rich marijuana for recreational purpose is affected by feelings of paranoia and anxiety and in extreme cases may become besieged by panic attacks.
Cannabinoids can also enhance enjoyment of food as it heightens taste and flavor of food through sensory nerves of the brain. It has been noticed that people that are high on THC induced marijuana are able to enjoy slow music and comedy as their perception of time and activities is distorted. Varying amounts of cannabinoids can lead to pseudo hallucinatory effect and dissociative state and in extreme cases can even lead to aggressive behavior wherein physical restraint may be necessary.
These are produced by bodies of humans and mammals to enable physiological functions like pain management, immunity management, memory, regulation of inflammation, and reward for appetite management. These work with receptors on the brain comprising of C1 and C2 that manage brain reactions to certain situations. The first receptor C1 that receives THC stimulates its euphoric activities and it can manage health issues like loss of appetite, immune function, cognition thermoregulation and emesis.
How different types of cannabinoids affect the human body
The strongest type of cannabinoids is THC and CBD that have both therapeutic uses if they are taken in doses that are recommended by a good doctor. The cannabis which contains CBD will be largely used for medicinal purposes like reduction of inflammation and nausea. Clinical tests have shown that THC has been useful in reduction of brain cancer cells by hampering growth of tumor cells and allowing new blood cells to grow. THC is an antioxidant that has 20 times more anti-inflammatory powers of aspirin.
CBD has synergies with THC and together provide the artificial therapeutic effect that is need by human body under stressed conditions. CBD is a beneficial cannabinoid that helps is managing aggressive cases of incurable diseases like cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy and even neurological disorders.
It is a power analgesic which works to treat difficult to manage neuropathic pain that is common during brain cancer cases. The serotonin balancing agent in CBD can have a positive effect on reducing anxiety and enhancing sleep in patients suffering from age related neuro problems that is common among old people. It also helps the body relax and regulates blood pressure.
Cannabichromeme And Cannabigerol
These cannabinoids in hemp is generally found in cannabis grown in tropical regions. It is regarded more superior to CBD and THC due to its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties that can help if it is used in topical medicines.
But it has not been used much till date in these formulations as its overall effect is not as effective as CBD and THC. Cannabigerol is also a potent antibacterial compound that has fought against fungi and mycobacterial infections that people get throughout the year. Though cannabigerol exists in very small amounts in the human body it is a precursor to THC and CBD.
Boosts Energy Levels and Alleviates Stress
Cannabinoid complex will be able to boost one’s energy levels and alleviate stress as well. When taking this formula, users can feel much more energetic and in tune with their abilities. Also, the lack of stress makes it easier to focus throughout the day and to get through any given task.